Old Frisian is the youngest among the Old Germanic languages and has perhaps not always attracted the attention it deserves. The present volume testifies to the many challenges which the language, literature and culture of the medieval Frisians pose to the modern researcher. Reading the contributions of the twenty-plus authors, it becomes clear that approaches range from traditional to modern, from practical to theoretical, from syntax to etymology, from diachronic to synchronic, from orality to Latinity - in short, all of them aspects that can be subsumed under the term 'philology'. Like its three predecessors, this special volume brings together veterans and newcomers, Frisians and scholars from all over the world, together reflecting the enthusiasm and learning they bring to the subject. Innovative, explorative, provocative - whatever qualification the reader wants to apply, what the authors above all show are directions for Old Frisian philology which future students in the field may take with profit.